“All of these are carotenoids,” says colorMaker’s Stephen Lauro. “All are from the same family of molecules.”
Carotenoids generally have good heat stability. Carotenoids can handle high temperature and high pressure extrusion processing. Carotenoids work best in pH above 3.5 and have good pH stability in high pH. However, carotenoids can be degraded by light, low pH, oxygen and enzymes. DDW’s application team has options available to help overcome these challenges. This is especially important to remember for manufacturers of beverage concentrates with lower pH levels.
Most carotenoids as initially extracted from their plant source are oil soluble. Here are some examples of carotenoid solubilities:
All carotenoids demonstrate a basic structure which consists of a hydrocarbon chain of varying length and varying types of end groups. The light absorption of the conjugated carbon chain and its variations produce the color. The long chain also leads to color degradation due to oxidation and light. Carotenoids benefit from processing techniques that combat oxidation such as antioxidants and specialized packaging.
Figure 2: Lycopene
Figure 3: Trans-bixin