Stability of Carotenoids
Carotenoids generally have good heat stability. Carotenoids can handle high temperature and high pressure extrusion processing. Carotenoids work best in pH above 3.5 and have good pH stability in high pH. However, carotenoids can be degraded by light, low pH, oxygen and enzymes. DDW's application team has options available to help overcome these challenges. This is especially important to remember for manufacturers of beverage concentrates with lower pH levels.
Solubility of Carotenoids
Most carotenoids, such as beta-carotene and paprika, are oil soluble when extracted from their plant source. DDW is pleased to announce the opening of its new state-of-the-art facility which will produce EmulsiTech™, DDW's new line of color emulsions. Using cutting-edge emulsion technology, DDW converts these oil soluble colors into awater dispersible form. With EmulsiTech™, product developers can formulate with easy-to-use, natural colorings for clear or opaque applications.
All carotenoids demonstrate a basic structure which consists of a hydrocarbon chain of varying length and varying types of end groups. The light absorption of the conjugated carbon chain and its variations produce the colour. The long chain also leads to colour degradation due to oxidation and light. Carotenoids benefit from processing techniques that combat oxidation such as antioxidants and specialized packaging.
Figure 1: beta-carotene
Figure 2: Lycopene
Figure 3: Trans-bixin